Glossary on Plant Breeding and Plant Diversity
Allele: alternate forms of a genetic locus. For example, at a locus determining eye colour, an individual might have the allele for blue eyes, brown, etc.
Bioinformatics – The study of the application of computer and statistical techniques to the management of information. In genome projects this includes the development of methods to search databases quickly, to analyze DNA sequence information, and to predict protein sequence and structure from DNA sequence data.
Biological diversity – encompasses all species of plants, animals, and microorganisms and the ecosystems and ecological processes of which they are parts. (Source: Environmental Protection Agency EPA, 1990)
Description (2): The variety of life on all levels of organization, represented by the number and relative frequencies of items (genes, organisms and ecosystems.(Source: McAllister, 1991)
Breeding: the intentional development of new forms or varieties of plants (or animals) by crossing, hybridization, and selection of offspring for desirable characteristics
Chromosome: the structure in the eukaryotic nucleus and in the prokaryotic cell that carries most of the DNA
Cross-over: The point along the meiotic chromosome where the exchange of genetic material takes place. This structure can often be identified through a microscope
Crossing-over: The reciprocal exchange of material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis, which is responsible for genetic recombination. The process involves the natural breaking of chromosomes, the exchange of chromosome pieces, and the reuniting of DNA molecules
Domestication: the process by which plants are genetically modified by selection over time by humans for traits that are more desirable or advantageous for humans
DNA: an abbreviation for “deoxyribose nucleic acid”, the carrier molecule of inherited genetic information
Dwarfness: The genetically controlled reduction in plant height. For many crops, dwarfness, as long as it is not too extreme, is an advantage, because it means that less of the crop’s energy is used for growing the stem. Instead, this energy is used for seed/fruit/tuber production. The Green Revolution wheat and rice varieties were based on dwarfing genes
Emasculation: The removal of anthers from a flower before the pollen is shed. To produce F1hybrid seed in a species bearing monoecious flowers, emasculation is necessary to remove any possibility of self-pollination
Epigenetic: heritable variation caused by differences in the chemistry of either the DNA (methylation) or the proteins associated with the DNA (histone acetylation), rather than in the DNA sequence itself
Gamete: The haploid cell produced by meiosis. The male gamete is the pollen grain, while the female gamete is the egg cell
Gene: the unit of heredity, transmitted from generation to generation during reproduction. Each gene consists of a sequence of nucleotides, occupying a specific position along a chromosome. Most genes encodes a specific functional product
Genetic diversity: The variety of different types of genes in a species or population.
Genetic resources: Genetic material of plants, animals or microorganisms (including modern cultivars and breeds, primitive varieties and breeds, landraces and wild or weedy relatives of crop plants or domesticated animals) that has value as a resource for people or future generations.
Genetically modified organisms: Organisms whose genetic make-up has been altered by the insertion or deletion of small fragments of DNA from the same or another species in order to create or enhance desirable characteristics.
Genome: all the genetic material of an organism
Genotype: the inherited genetic constitution of an organism, see also phenotype
Genotyping: the process of identifying the genetic make-up of an organism, by using molecular markers, DNA sequencing, etc.
Germplasm: the collection of a set of genetic resources for an organism, which can consist of a seed collection, nursery, or other types
Genotype x Environment (GxE): the interaction of a plant’s genotype with the environment in which it is grown that contributes to its performance
Haploid: having a single set of chromosomes, for example as in a gamete
Haplotype: A combination of genetic variants (usually SNPs) which are inherited as a unit, because they are present along a stretch of DNA so short that the chance of a recombination event occurring within it is effectively zero
Homozygous: contains identical alleles at a particular locus
Heterosis: the phenomena where the progeny of 2 inbred lines performs better than: either of the parents (best-parent heterosis) or the mean of the parents (mid-parental heterosis). The molecular basis of heterosis is still unknown
Heterozygous: contains different alleles at a particular locus
Hybridize: to cross-pollinate, to produce hybrids
Inbred lines: lines that have been selfed to the point of homozygosity
Inbreeding depression: the loss of vigor when some crops have reduced heterozygosity due to enforced self-pollination
In-situ conservation: The conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings and, in the case of domesticated or cultivated species, in the surroundings where they have developed their distinctive properties (Convention on Biological Diversity).
Introgression: movement of a gene or locus from one species into another by hybridization
Landraces: a local variety that has been developed by adaptation to its local environment; usually heterogeneous varieties
Linkage, genetic linkage: when two chromosomal regions are located physically near each other such that there is a high likelihood they will be inherited together
Linkage drag: the negative association of non-targeted genes that are inherited with a gene of interest due to linkage
Linkage disequilibrium: the non-random association of alleles at two or more loci, i.e. they occur together more often than would be expected by chance
Mapping: the process of identifying the location of a gene or DNA segment along a chromosome. In genetic mapping, this is done by analyzing patterns of inheritance in segregating populations (measured in recombinational units, commonly centimorgans). Inphysical mapping, this describes the actual location of a sequence in a particular genomic region (measured in bp)
Molecular marker: a gene or DNA sequence that identifies a particular locus on the chromosome (whether the actual location is known or not) and whose inheritance can be followed
Mutation: an abrupt change in the genotype of an organism that is not the result of recombination
Pathogen: A simple organism which damages a crop plant. The most important crop pathogens are fungi, bacteria and viruses. Larger pathogens, such as nematodes, insects, rats, birds etc. are usually referred to as pests rather than as pathogens
Pedigree: line of descent, lineage, ancestry
Phenotype: the visible appearance of an organism. The phenotype reflects the combined action of the genotype and the environment where the individual exists
Plastid: Organelles within the plant cell cytoplasm which contain their own DNA, and replicate independently of the nucleus. Green tissue cells include both chloroplasts (which are largely resposible for photosynthesis) and mitochondria (which is the major site of energy production in the cell). Amyloplasts synthesize and store starch in non-green tissue such as the potato tuber
Polygenic: When applied to a trait, this term implies that many genes are involved in its determination. When only a few genes are involved, the trait is said to be under oligogeniccontrol, and when only one gene is involved, the trait is under monogenic control. Most quantitatively inherited traits are under polygenic control
Polyploidy: a state in which multiple copies of a complete genome are present. Polyploidy is rare in animals, but common in plants. In animals (and also plants) some tissues within a diploid organism can be polyploid. The polyploid series is haploid (1 copy), diploid (2 copies), triploid (3 copies), tetraploid (4 copies), pentaploid (5 copies), hexaploid (6 copies) etc.
Pure line variety: A variety which has been multiplied by a succession of self-fertilizations from a single seed (or sometimes from the progeny of a single plant). Pure line varieties are expected to be essentially fully homozygous and so their phenotype should be highly homogeneous
Quantitative trait loci (QTL): regions of the chromosome associated with the inheritance of polygenic traits
Recombination: the formation among the offspring of a mating of genetic combinations not present in either parent, achieved via the physical exchange of genetic material during meiosis
Resilience: The ability of a species, or variety or breed of species, to respond and adapt to external environmental stresses.
Segregation: The process whereby alleles are separated from one another as a result of meiosis. Segregation can only occur with respect to genes which are in the heterozygous state in the parental plant
SNP: an abbreviation for “single nucleotide polymorphism”, pronounced “snip”. A SNP which distinguishes two sequences can be used as a genetic marker
Species: A group of organisms capable of interbreeding freely with each other but not with members of other species.
Sustainable use: The use of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations (Convention on Biological Diversity).
Trait: A recognizable, measurable character in a plant, which is under some genetic control
Transgenic: an organism containing genetic material from another organism transferred by genetic engineering
Zygote: The product of the fusion between one of the pollen sperm nuclei and the egg cell of the female gamete at fertilization. Following a number of mitotic divisions, the zygote differentiates into the embryo